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In contrast to the traditional biology which usually studied all living organisms on a macro scale, modern biological research more focus on human-, especially diseases-related microbiology, cell and molecular biology. The achievements of these studies have deeply influenced our daily life. This course targets the students from non-biology major and introduces four research areas including microbiology, cell biology, immunology, and molecular biology in nowadays biological science. The ethical and social issues raised in application of these researches will also be discussed.