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The modern social sciences seek universal explanations of human actions, but social scientists hold contesting theories. Radical critics even argue that there is no objectivity in the social sciences. Grand theory seems obsolete nowadays. To a certain extent, the diversity of the social sciences is the historical consequence of institutionalisation and professionalization for centuries. This course, from the historical perspective, sheds light on the development of the modern social sciences since the Enlightenment. We are going (1) to discuss influential theorists and their social positions such as Karl Marx, Max Weber, and Thomas Kuhn; (2) to examine the disciplinary institutionalization and professionalization; (3) to look into the key rule that the state had. In short, it is a self-reflexive course, aiming to reveal the long-term ignored unique relationship between history and the modern social sciences.